Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic acid is also known as vitamin B5. It is a water soluble vitamin used by animals to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to metabolize proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Major food sources include dried mushrooms, liver, dried egg yolks and sunflower seeds among others.

Pantothenic acid deficiency is extremely rare but symptoms include impaired energy production, irritability, fatigue, and apathy. Others include numbness, paresthesia, and muscle cramps.